Deschloroetizolam is a structural relative of benzodiazepines, whereby the benzene ring has been replaced by a thiophene ring, classifying it as a thienodiazepine. It differs structurally from its parent compound etizolam through removal of the chlorine atom at the 2' position on the phenyl ring.
Deschloroetizolam contains a thiophene ring fused to a diazepine ring, which is a seven member ring with the two nitrogen constituents located at R1 and R4. Thiophene is a five member aromatic ring with one sulfur atom. This forms the thienodiazepine core of deschloroetizolam. An ethyl chain is bound to this bicyclic structure at R7. Additionally, a phenyl ring is bound to this structure at R5. Deschloroetizolam also contains a methylated triazole ring fused to and incorporating R1 and R2 of its diazepine ring. Deschloroetizolam shares this fused triazole ring substitution with certain benzodiazepine drugs, called triazolobenzodiazepines, distinguished by the suffix "-zolam".
Thienodiazepines produce a variety of effects by binding to the benzodiazepine receptor site and magnifying the efficiency and effects of the neurotransmitter gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) by acting on its receptors. As this site is the most prolific inhibitory receptor set within the brain, its modulation results in the sedating (or calming effects) of deschloroetizolam on the nervous system.
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